Towards a computational theory of human daydreaming. The following important roles of daydreaming in human cognition are postulated:
Edit Psychologist Joe Griffinone of the founders of human givens psychology, has put forward an explanation for why humans dream: The expectation fulfilment theory of dreaming.
He reviewed all the available scientific evidence and conducted a 12 year program of research that showed that all dreams are expressed in the form of sensory metaphors. Each night it brings down our autonomic arousal level.
The patterns of arousal are metaphorically acted out and thereby deactivated.
April 12th pp Research by Michel Jouvet indicated that instinctive behaviours are programmed during the REM state in the foetus and the neonate. This is necessarily in the form of incomplete templates for which the animal later identifies analogous sensory components in the real world. These analogical templates give animals the ability to respond to the environment in a flexible way and generate the ability to learn, rather than just react.
Once an instinct-driven pattern is activated and becomes an expectation, it can normally only be deactivated by the actual carrying out of the programmed behaviour by the central nervous system, and this clearly does not give animals the flexibility needed to survive.
So animals needed to evolve the ability to inhibit arousals when necessary and deactivate them later when they could do no harm. Griffin hypothesized that that is why animals evolved to dream.
During REM sleep, unfulfilled emotional expectations left over from the day are run out in the form of metaphors, thus deactivating them and freeing up the brain to deal with the new emotionally arousing events of the following day. Dreams are metaphorical translations of waking expectations.
Expectations which cause emotional arousal that is not acted upon during the day to quell the arousal, become dreams during sleep. Dreaming deactivates that emotional arousal by completing the expectation pattern metaphorically, freeing the brain to respond afresh to each new day. Dreams are typically associated with REM sleep, a phase of brain activity which occurs towards the end of the sleep cycle.
REM sleep is characterized by rapid horizontal eye movements, stimulation of the ponsincreased respiratory and heart rate, and temporary paralysis of the body. Subjects awakened during REM sleep usually report having been dreaming.
However, a small fraction of subjects also report dreaming in other phases of sleep. Some neurologists even group mental phenomena such as daydreaming under the umbrella of dreaming. In other words, if a dream feels like it lasted twenty minutes, these studies suggest it was indeed about twenty minutes.
However, other studies have found this to be inaccurate. Thus, there is some debate regarding the distribution of time in a dream corresponding to reality. It is unknown where in the brain dreams originate — if there is such a single location — or why dreams occur at all.
However, there are many competing theories of the neurology of dreams. The activation synthesis theory developed by Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley asserts that the sensory experiences are fabricated by the cortex as a means of interpreting random signals from the pons.
They propose that in REM sleep, the ascending cholinergic PGO ponto-geniculo-occipital waves stimulate higher midbrain and forebrain cortical structures, producing rapid eye movements. The activated forebrain then synthesizes the dream out of this internally generated information.
They assume that the same structures that induce REM sleep also generate sensory information.
This chemical change is hypothesized to produce a psychotic stateas well as a lack of orientation. On the other hand, research by Mark Solms suggests that dreams are generated in the forebrainand that REM sleep and dreaming are not directly related.In philosophy, the computational theory of mind (CTM) refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of ashio-midori.com McCulloch and Walter Pitts () were the first to suggest that neural activity is computational.
They argued that neural computations explain cognition. Fodor ’s Challenge to the Classical Computational Introduction In The Mind Doesn ’t Work That Way (TMD), Jerry Fodor, the founding father of the Classical Computational Theory of the Mind (CTM) argues that although computationalism will likely succeed in explaining modular processes, it will fail in.
However, since daydreaming is so pervasive in human experience (Pope, ) (Singer, ), we must ask ourselves what purposes it might serve, both for humans and intelligent computer systems. The Case Against Computational Theory of the Mind: A Refutation of Mathematically-Contingent Weak A.I.
conjectures that computational simulations of human minds could exist by the close of the 20th century (a prediction that he based on an assurance that storage capacities and.
I. INTRODUCTION An intriguing aspect of humans is that we spend much time engaged in thought not directly related to the We hypothesize several important roles of daydreaming in human and computer cognition.
These roles From a purely computational point of view, it may seem pointless to incorporate emotions of any type into a system. As. Aug 10, · A View from Emerging Technology from the arXiv How Computational Complexity Will Revolutionize Philosophy The theory of computation has had a Author: Emerging Technology From The Arxiv.