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It is not at all clear if all or even most of the intersex surgeries done today involve what would legally and ethically constitute informed consent. They believed that Joan and the family would need help adjusting to her new gender, but that full or near-full adjustment could be achieved.
For decades, the alleged success of this particular sex reassignment had been widely reported by Hopkins sexologist John Money and others as proof that physicians could essentially create any gender out of any child, so long as the cosmetic alteration was performed early.
The postulates of this approach are summarized succinctly by Milton Diamond and Keith Sigmundson: Diamond and Sigmundson recently interviewed the person in question, now an adult, and report that Joan had in fact chosen to resume life as John at age fourteen. John, now an adult, is married to a woman and, via adoption, is the father of her children.
John and his mother report that in the Joan-years, John was never fully comfortable with a female gender identity. Indeed, Joan actively attempted to resist some of the treatment designed to ensure her female identity; for instance, when prescribed estrogens at age twelve, Joan secretly discarded the feminizing hormones.
At his request, John received a mastectomy at age fourteen, and for the next two years underwent several plastic surgery operations aimed at making his genitals look more masculine.
In their report, Diamond and Sigmundson also take the opportunity of publication to comment on the problem of the lack of long-term follow-up of cases like these. But what is also troubling is the lack of ethical analysis around cases like this-particularly around cases of the medical treatment of intersexuality, a phenomenon many orders of magnitude more common than traumatic loss of the penis.
While there have been some brief discussions of the ethics of deceiving intersex patients that discussion is reviewed belowthe medical treatment of people born intersexed has remained largely ignored by ethicists.
This article seeks to challenge that assumption and to encourage interested parties to reconsider, from an ethical standpoint, the dominant treatment protocols for children and adults with unusual genital anatomy. But how common is it?
The answer depends, of course, on how one defines it. For our purposes, it is simplest to put the question of frequency pragmatically: How often do physicians find themselves unsure which gender to assign at birth?
Historical Background I came to this topic as an historian and philosopher of science. My initial interest was actually in learning how British and French medical and scientific men of the late nineteenth century dealt with human hermaphroditism.
The late nineteenth century was a time when the alleged naturalness of European social sex borders was under serious challenge by feminists and homosexuals and by anthropological reports of sex roles in other cultures. I wanted to know what biomedical professionals did, at such a politically charged time, with those who inadvertently challenged anatomical sex borders.
The answer is that biomedical men tried their best to shore up the borders between masculinity and femininity. Nevertheless, new technologies-specifically laparotomies and biopsies-in the s made this approach untenable.
There was no place, socially or legally, for true hermaphrodites. Moreover, physicians found case after case of extremely feminine-looking and feminine-acting women who were shown upon careful analysis to have testes and no ovaries. The latter were cases of what today is called androgen-insensitivity syndrome AISalso known as testicular feminization syndrome.
AIS is often not discovered until puberty, when these girls do not menstruate and a gynecological examination reveals AIS. Dominant Treatment Protocols Thus the late twentieth century medical approach to intersexuality is based essentially on an anatomically strict psychosocial theory of gender identity.
The theory also by implication presumes that there are definite acceptable and unacceptable roles for boys, girls, men, and women, and that this approach will achieve successful psychosocial adjustment, at least far more often than any other approach.
Many also actively seek guidance about gender assignment and parenting practices.Evidence-based research backing these statements continues to mount, showing devastating physical and mental effects to children exposed to toxic stress at a young age.
(one of 5 enduring issues) Correlational Research Scientists use ____________ research to examine the relationships b/t 2 or more variables w/out manipulating any variable.
The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five-factor model (FFM), and the OCEAN model, is a taxonomy for personality traits.
It is based on common language descriptors. When factor analysis (a statistical technique) is applied to personality survey data, some words used to describe aspects of personality are often applied to the same person..
For example, someone described as. Enduring Issues. All psychologists share a common interesting five enduring issues that override their areas of specialization and that cut to the core of what it means to be human.
These are the five enduring issues that hold psychology together, but I don't know how Is behavior caused more by inner traits or by external. Find facts, photos, information and history, travel videos, flags, and maps of countries and cities of the world from National Geographic.