Historical cases[ edit ] In Great Britain, there was renewed interest in Magna Carta in the 17th century.
Introduction With the end of the Cold War came a period of massive and profound optimism concerning the prospects for democracy in the Third World. Are we in the early stages of a comprehensive setback for democracy in the Third World? What has been the role of Western countries in the processes of political transition?
This paper begins with an overview of achievements and shortcomings of processes of democratization in the Third World. I To what extent was gradual democratisation that many Third World countries have experienced the opening stages of a transition process to democracy.
I go on to argue that a large number of countries are stuck in the initial phases of a democratic transition. No comprehensive setback for democracy is in the cards, but there are no prospects for any substantial democratic progress either.
My discussion of this focuses on Africa. Although the process of democratization is by nature first and foremost a domestic, internal affair, international actors have contributed to this unfortunate state of affairs.
My attempt to spell this out focuses on three factors: Some of the problems are related to national interests: Western countries pursue their own agenda, irrespective of the broader consequences for democracy.
But some of them are also related to the inability of research to properly spell out what the best policies and most appropriate measures are. Indeed, research on governance and development appears to move in odd phases that are contradictory more that cumulative: Now the emphasis is on democracy and accountability and it is implied that democracy per definition creates a stronger, more developmentalist state.
Within that general context it is a main aim to discuss the relationship between processes of democratization and processes of state strengthening, meaning the creation of more developmentalist states, better capable of pursuing economic and social development.
It is an underlying assumption that without this connection between democratization and increased state strength, the development of democracy itself will be severely constrained. As for terminology, I employ the standard definition of democracy developed by Dahl.
Political democracy is a system of government that meets the following conditions: Meaningful and extensive competition among individuals and organized groups especially political parties for all effective positions of government power, at regular intervals excluding the use of force.
A highly inclusive level of political participation in the selection of leaders and policies, at least through regular and fair elections, such that no major adult social group is excluded.
A level of civil and political liberties - freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom to form and join organizations - sufficient to ensure the integrity of political competition and participation Diamond et al. A reasonable operationalization of this definition is made in the index employed by Freedom House.
Democracy at Century's End The Freedom House survey of independent countries with more than one million inhabitants identified forty-nine countries as free. When countries with fewer than one million inhabitants were included bringing the total number of states in the world to the survey classified seventy-nine countries as free, fifty-nine as partly free, and another fifty-three as not free Freedom House The question whether such number constitute great democratic progress is a bit like the question whether the glass is half full or half empty.
The democratic transitions began in Southern Europe in the s; they came to include Latin America in the early s and then Eastern Europe, Africa, as well as parts of Asia in the late s and early s.
There are more countries today than ever before with some measure of democracy.Determinants of Democracy The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how forecast a gradual rise in democracy. In contrast, democracies that experienced major declines in the extent of democracy from the s to the s.
Modernization consists of a gradual differentiation and specialization of social structures that culminates in a separation of political structures from other structures and makes democracy possible.
Gradual and orderly democratization ***** Gradual and orderly progress in Hong Kong's democratization process is clearly envisaged by the Basic Law, the Secretary for Constitutional Affairs Mr Michael Suen said today (Tuesday).
Democratization is when nations gradually progress into a moredefinite democratic political regime. The Example of Senegal is in contrast to Benin and many other states that the third wave of democratisation cause by massive reforms, however, Senegal passed through a more gradual transition process.
Different patterns of democratization are often used to explain other political phenomena, such as whether a country goes to a war or whether its economy grows. Democratization itself is influenced by various factors, including .